Biology 213: Biology of Plants, Review for
1. Why study Plants?
- Energy flow, carbon input, nitrogen input, biomass
conversion, mineral elements, O2 generation,
water cycle, erosion, medicine, aesthetics/recreation,
- Edible vaccines
- Tobacco Pharming
- Elevated CO2, global warming, deforestation,
fossil fuel emissions, NDVI, etc
- Nitrogen oxide pollution and seeds
- Plants & CO2 Rich world by Bazzaz and C4 plants by
- Video "power of plant", ethnobotany and natural
plant products (herbivory deterrents)
- Questions concerning Medicinal Plants
- PowerPoint: Primary Metabolites in Plants, Secondary
Metabolites in Plants
2. Plant Cells
- Ultrastructure of plant cells, middle lamella,
intracellular spaces, cell walls, apoplast/symplast
system, plasmalemma, protoplast, cytosol, hyaloplasm,
peroxisome, glyoxysome, sphaerosome, granuals, tonoplast,
chloroplast, mitochondrian, dictyosome, vesicles,
microtubules, microfilaments, desmotubules,
plasmodesmata, pits, ER, polyribosomes, vacuole, etc.
- Cell types & tissue types, parenchyma, sclerenchyma,
collenchyma, tracheids, fibers , vessels, sieve tube
members, companion cells, transfer cells, fusiform
initials, ray initials, xylem, phloem, vascular cambium,
procambium, cork cambium, procambium, etc.
- Apical meristems, basal meristems, ground meristem,
dermal meristem, vascular meristem,
3. Body plan of a plant
- Shoot, root, apical meristem, nodes, internodes, axillary
bud, flower, petiole, blade, leaf, tap root, primary
root, secondary root, root hairs, cotyledon, tillers,
basal meristem, etc.
- Seed, monocot, dicot, endosperm, seed coat, allueurone
layer, coleoptile, coleorhiza, raph, hilum, micropyle,
bran, wheat germ, embryo, radicle, scutellum, pericarp,
- Seed germination, plant hormones, seasonal growth, leaf
arrangements, "growth" in plants, etc.
- Primay growth and secondary growth.
4. Plant Leaves
- External anatomy and morphology of leaves. Monocot and
dicot and gymnosperm
- Internal anatomy of leaves, epidermis, guard cells,
stomatal complex, vascular bundles, bundle sheath, kranz
anatomy, bundle sheath cells, mesophyll cells, palisade
mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, substomatal cavity, monocot
vs dicot leaves, bulliform cells, cuticle, cutin,
trichomes, glandular hairs, etc.
5. Evolution of C4 Photosynthesis in plants
- Article and Seminar by Rowan Sage on C4 photosynthesis:
Carboxylating enzyme "RuBISCO" in
photosynthesis orginated in a geological age when there
was a "reducing atmosphere" (high CO2 very low
02). When O2 accumulated in ancient atmosphere and CO2
decreased (by product of photosynthsis) photorespiration
became a limiting factor and favored the evolution of C4
plants (20 MYA). Teeth of fossil horses in North America
and grazing animals in Africa and South America deposit
carbon in their enamel that indicates the time of origin
of C4 plants (Figure 13, Cerling 1999). Tooth enamel
contains well preserved fossil carbon and since C4 plants
with PEP carboxylase activity do not descriminate against
the heavier forms of isotopic carbon (C13) but C3 plants
with RuBISCO carboxylase activity do, it is fairly easy
to determine when fossil horses and other grazers
switched from a C3 diet to a C4 diet.(carbon isotope
level goes up, less negative, in Figure 13).
- "Kranz Anatomy" in the mosophyll of leaves is
an indicator of C4 photosynthesis. There is only one
example thus far of "single cell C4
photosynthesis", ask Libby Brooks.